March 4, 2019

High-quality imaging shows how kelps (transplanted adult holdfasts and laboratory juvenile growth) were adhering to the concrete surfaces of Reef Cubes.

FIB milled cross-sections and high-resolution imaging revealed the structural arrangement between the kelp and the gripping concrete. Together with elemental analysis, a potential merging between the boundaries of the concrete and the kelp raised a new question for further investigation.

All details gathered from FIB-SEM showed how the Reef Cube surfaces were colonised by habitat building species, which offered an invaluable reference for new mix designs to innovate the chemistry of the concrete and future kelp communities that establish themselves on Reef Cubes in the marine environment.